As opposed to preventive or noninvasive treatments such as lifestyle changes and most imaging techniques, interventional cardiology deals specifically with more invasive treatments, often through catheters and stenting. Interventional cardiologists have expanded their skills to address issues related to structural acquired heart disease. These techniques have become important therapies for patients who have undergone surgical implantation of cardiac valves.

Heart failure means that the heart is not pumping as it should. Sometimes, heart loses pumping function, causing fatigue and shortness of breath. Understanding the cellular basis of heart failure before and after it happens, along with genetic mutations and differences in men and women, helps researchers target research and create clinical trials.

Preventive Cardiology has evolved to treat the spectrum of coronary disease risk factors and coronary artery disease through the assessment of individual risk and early initiation of interventions to prevent, delay, or modify the development of clinical atherosclerosis (primary prevention), as well as treat individuals after the manifestation of symptomatic coronary artery disease (secondary prevention). Most of the countries have preventive cardiology professional societies, which provide an important forum to have health professionals and policy makers to control and prevention of CVD. For example, The American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) aims “to promote the prevention of cardiovascular disease'', and the European Society of Preventive Cardiology (ESPC) aims “to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.”

The limited regenerative capacity of the heart is a major factor in heart failure and death. Once cardiac cells are diseased, it’s hard for them to heal like your body would with a cut. Studying how the heart forms in fetuses and then matures is a natural step for researchers interested in generating and regenerating heart cells. Researchers also investigated the effect of stem cell-derived cardiac cells on repairing damaged hearts and their potential to treat heart muscle diseases. Cardiovascular progenitor cells is a type of heart cell, are called building blocks because they’re used to form the heart during fetal development. They hold the therapeutic potential because of their unique ability to develop into several different heart cell types. Researchers are studying how CPC cells are useful for repairing damaged hearts. CPCs are regenerative; scientists may be able to grow them in a dish. It’s not as easy to grow cells in a lab as it is in the body — they often have “developmental arrest” and don’t mature. A recent discovery of the pathways that lead a fetal cell into an adult cell will enable researchers to recreate adult heart tissue in the lab, which holds tremendous potential for new heart disease treatment.

The leading cause of heart disease was studied in American women and whose result was death. Women present heart problems differently than men. Researching conditions such as vascular stiffness, heart valve disease during pregnancy, heart attacks that occur without obstructed coronary arteries, and autoimmune diseases and how they specifically affect the hearts of women will help develop new preventions and treatments. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for heart attacks in women, congestive heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, strokes and the conditions associated with having cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

<p>Heart arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) occur when the heart’s electrical system is out of synch and disorganized. Arrhythmias are important because they can cause sudden cardiac death, strokes and their aftereffects.<br /> Arrhythmias occur when the electrical signals to the heart that coordinate heartbeats are not working properly. Many heart arrhythmias are harmless; however, if they are particularly abnormal, or result from a weak or damaged heart, arrhythmias can cause serious and even potentially fatal symptoms.</p>

With advances in the treatment of HIV, people with HIV are now living longer but unfortunately experience heart disease and its complications at faster rates than people without HIV infection. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has spread across all 4 corners of the globe and is one of the most deadly infections in the past century. Worldwide, it is estimated that approximately 34 million people are currently living with HIV of whom 90% are in developing countries.

Hypertension, also called high blood pressure, is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. High blood pressure is classified as either primary hypertension or secondary hypertension. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. The 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.

<p>Imaging is a study of about the structure and functioning of a patient’s heart. a. Imaging for Catheter Ablations b. Imaging to Diagnose Heart Dysfunction at an Early Stage c. Imaging to help define Risk and Diagnose Coronary Artery Disease d. Safe MRI Techniques for Patients with Pacemakers</p>