<p>A medical home is an idea where a primary care provider is the basis of all health care for a child. This includes care visits for illnesses, injuries, anticipatory guidance, vaccinations, immunizations, growth and development observation and nursing, preventive health maintenance, and for children with special health care needs, particularly; a coordinated management of care among other medical and nonmedical specialists (speech therapy, audiology, child development and school programs, and so on). Pediatrics is dedicated to improving the physical, emotional, and social health of infants, children, and adolescents through a novel and innovative medical care, research, education, training, and advocacy.</p>

<p>Neonatology is a branch of pediatrics that particularly deals with the medical care of newborn infants, especially premature or preterm or ill. Neonatology is a specialized sub-discipline of pediatrics since neonatologists have to be trained specifically to handle the most complex and high-risk complications. Perinatology is concerned with the medical care of the mother as well as the fetus at higher risk for complications. A high-risk infant might be cared for by a perinatologist and neonatologist.</p>

Pediatric and neonatal genetics provides complete care in the identification, treatment, and prevention of birth defects, structural abnormalities, inherited diseases, chromosomal abnormalities, and mental retardation. Pediatric and neonatal geneticists treat genetic diseases and provide genetic counseling. Some of the Conditions evaluated by Pediatric Geneticists include autism, birth defects, and congenital anomalies, cardiac genetics, craniofacial genetics (irregularity of the face and skull), cystinosis (excess amounts of the amino acid cystine in the cells, affecting kidneys and eyes), Down syndrome, ehlers-danlos, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Marfan syndromes, fragile x syndrome, neurofibromatosis, skeletal abnormalities, and limb defects, urogenital malformation (defects in urinary system or genitalia), among others.

<p>The nutritional requirements of babies and young adolescents vary from that of adults in numerous features due to their energy expenditure, body composition, rate of growth, and physiological changes. There is an increased risk of nutritional disturbances. Due to the high nutritional needs of infants and adolescents, This risk may become more difficult by a lack of knowledge and awareness of signs and symptoms on the caregiver’s end. A pediatrician can make good nutritional assessments, which include family history, and physical examination, developmental assessment, medical history, especially growth parameters and anthropometrics.</p>

Allergy symptoms commonly take place in children. Atopy is a tendency of exaggerated IgE antibody production. it is defined by the presence of specific IgE in vivo or in vitro. Atopy represents a predisposition to atopic diseases. It includes asthma, eczema, allergic rhinitis, and food allergy. Scientific evidence of the systemic link between all of the atopic diseases has increased prominently. The atopy march starts early in life. it is widely believed that the fetal environment may be important for the development of subsequent sensitization and disease manifestation. Early events under the influence of a variety of environmental factors, affect the expression of the atopy genotype. The age of onset of every atopic disease is varied and may be predisposed by the aforementioned factors. Typically, atopic dermatitis and food allergy are normally seen in young infants; while asthma usually starts after the age of 3 years, and allergic rhinitis develops at a later stage in childhood.

The specialty of pediatric infectious diseases includes infection. Bacterial, fungal, parasitic or viral infections are all infectious diseases that are cause for concern. These illnesses need to be treated by specialists who are dedicated to preventing and treating acute and chronic infectious diseases. These include Lyme disease HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, tuberculosis, osteomyelitis, persistent fever or fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, recurrent infections, complicated methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.

Pediatric cardiology is an educational as well as a medical specialty and the pediatric cardiologist has a major role in the education of students, doctors, primary health care specialists, nurses, and paramedical personnel. Close liaison with pediatrics, pediatric subspecialties, adult cardiology, cardiothoracic surgery, obstetrics, radiology, and pathology is required.

<p>Pediatric and Neonatal pulmonology describes lung diseases in infants and children. Pediatric pulmonologists are dedicated to providing specialized care for children with asthma, cystic fibrosis, and other chronic lung diseases. Pediatric pulmonology also highlights the importance of understanding respiratory physiology and paying full care to the appropriate physical exam. Pediatric pulmonology is also providing care to patients with complex aerodigestive disorders</p>

<p>Pediatric and neonatal gastroenterology and hepatology includes the diagnosis and treatment of children and teenagers with diseases of the digestive tract, liver, and pancreas as well. Gastrointestinal (GI) problems in children may quite vary from those of adults, not only in presentation but also in types of diseases. The most prominent ailments that pediatric gastroenterology is concerned with are acute diarrhea, persistent vomiting, gastritis, and problems with the development of the gastric tract. Although a pediatrician can provide treatment to many gastric diseases, chronic diseases, related to the nutrition of the children, the pancreas or the liver needs to be treated by a pediatric gastroenterologist.</p>

<p>Traumatic wounds are a common reason to present the emergency department. A wound is a physical disruption of tissue from trauma. They can be result of trauma or intentional from surgery. Generally, wounds include abrasions, lacerations, burns, punctures, and larger wounds. Effective management of wounds needs a basic understanding of the physiologic process of wound healing. Pediatric and neonatal surgery may also be required for the surgical care of birth defects in a child or because of an injury or trauma. These may include pediatric nephrological surgery, pediatric emergency surgery, pediatric urological surgery, cardiothoracic surgery, pediatric neurosurgery, pediatric orthopedic surgery, pediatric hematological and gastrointestinal surgery, pediatric plastic and reconstructive surgery, pediatric oncological surgery, surgery involving fetuses or embryos and surgery involving adolescents or young adults.</p>

Although only 1% of all cancers occur in children (<19 years of age), it is the second leading cause of childhood mortality. Early diagnosis and proper therapy have the chance to prolong survival and frequently cure the disease. Many factors are taken into consideration in determining the treatment goals for an individual patient: the type of cancer, its stage of growth, the patient's age, and family members' wishes. The discipline of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology has continued to expand in both the clinical and basic science arenas over the last several decades. Discoveries of dominant oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and gene transfer technology, and hematopoietic growth factors have opened new areas of clinical and basic study, as well as provided new effective therapies for patients. Both the demonstrated improvement in care for pediatric patients with hematologic-oncologic disorders as well as the scientific excitement generated through research directed toward understanding of these disorders guarantees that the discipline of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology will continue to be an exciting part of pediatric medicine and science in the future.

Pediatric nephrology deals with chronic and acute kidney illnesses, diagnosis, investigation, and management. The provision of dialysis and renal transplantation. Pediatric nephrology also involves all aspects of renal physiology, including fluid management and disturbances in electrolytes and acid-base balance. A pediatric nephrologist is expert in the management of acute kidney injury (AKI), which may be managed conservatively, or with renal replacement therapy (RRT), including hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) and continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHF). They are also committed to the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), including the pre-dialysis phase, peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis and transplantation.

Children account for only a small percentage of pre-hospital emergency patients but are a special challenge for the treating physician. The broad spectrum of diseases, the wide age range with the physiological and anatomical changes that occur in it, and the special psychological, emotional, and communicative features of children make pediatric emergencies a special challenge for emergency physicians. A mastery of basic emergency procedures involves clinical evaluation of the child, the establishment of venous access, airway management, resuscitation, and drug dosing is essential for the successful emergency treatment of children. The common non-traumatic pediatric emergencies can be classified into four cardinal manifestations: respiratory distress, altered consciousness, seizure, and shock.

Pediatric ophthalmology is one branch of ophthalmology that is dedicated to the care of children’s eyes. And deals with the greatest knowledge of probable circumstances that affect the pediatric patient and his/her eyes. Neurologic development of vision occurs up until the age of 12 years. Misalignment of the eyes strabismus (Misalignment of the eyes ), myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism (uncorrected refractive error ) and anisometropia (asymmetry of refractive error) between the two eyes can negatively affect this development and cause amblyopia (“lazy eye”). If these conditions are identified and treated early, good vision can develop and can be maintained. Certain diseases other parts in the body, such as diabetes, can affect the eyes, and the pediatric ophthalmologist addresses these, as well.

Pediatric endocrinology is a department deals with the endocrine systems of newborns, children, adolescents, and young adults. Because of the complexity of the endocrine system, a variety of diseases and conditions can be traced to complications in this system. Pediatric endocrinology studies diagnostic and therapeutic services for infants and young adolescents with Diabetes mellitus, Type 1 and Type 2, hypoglycemia and disorders of physical growth, disorders of puberty and sexual maturation, Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism, short stature, pituitary function, Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), Turner Syndrome, and calcium and phosphorus metabolism- calcium disorders include hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, and juvenile osteoporosis).Diabetes Mellitus

<p>Pediatric neurology or child neurology deals with the diagnosis and management of neurological disorders in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents. child neurology involves diseases and disorders of the spinal cord, brain, peripheral nervous structure, autonomic nervous system, muscles and blood vessels that affect individuals in these age groups. A pediatric neurologist has specialized in training and awareness to assess, diagnose and treat a child with problems that include the nervous system. The conditions that pediatric neurologists deal with differ from relatively simple disorders (migraine or cerebral palsy ) to more critical and rare circumstances (metabolic disease or neurodegenerative disorders).</p>

Pediatric orthopedics is a subject of studies with the assessment and managing of musculoskeletal problems with the growing bones, joints, or muscles in children (newborns to young adolescents). Musculoskeletal problems and their evaluation/treatment in children vary from those of an adult. In children, musculoskeletal problems arise because of the growth which does not occur in adults. The complex musculoskeletal disorders in children. a pediatric orthopedic doctor treats by a medical-surgical method. Some of the common conditions treated by pediatric orthopedic doctors are deformities of the limb and spine, occurs at birth or later, such as scoliosis, limb length discrepancy, and club foot; fractures; infections or tumors in the bone or joint: abnormalities in gait/limping; Depending on the condition, pediatric orthopaedists provide appropriate non-surgical or surgical treatments to address the problems.

Pediatric dermatology concentrates on the treatment and management of children’s skin, hair and nail situations. These situations can develop as children grow, or they can be present from birth. Pediatric dermatology concentrates on children from infancy through adolescence. Pediatric dermatology deals with skin problems, which may or may not need treatment, like acne, birthmarks, cysts, hives, lesions, moles and warts. Circumstances in children where treatment is necessary include albinism, alopecia, atopic and contact dermatitis, eczema, epidermolysis bullosa, ichthyosis, hemangiomas, psoriasis, neurofibromatosis, and vitiligo

Pediatric nursing deals with the matter of child welfare and the health care of children. The definition of child wellbeing is simply the issues related to children faring well in a society, a nation, or throughout the world. Fundamentally, it is the promotion of child well-being and protection from harm. Children may be susceptible to a variety of reasons and need the support of adults in order to grow and flourish. The pediatric nurse is in the main position to recognize the needs of children, assess children's weaknesses, advocate for their rights, and ensure public protection. The role of the nurse in child welfare cases is to be aware of the susceptibility of children affected by social matters and to advocate and champion for those needing protection.

Neonates and young infants are less protected against life-threatening diseases because of a lack of vaccines or late observation. Almost all vaccines work from stimulation of serum or mucosal antibodies, especially in young newborns where the lack of previous antigen exposure limits the usefulness of T cell responses. Cellular immunity is also required for protection against spread disease and regaining from measles and smallpox. Effective neonatal vaccination would be preferable mainly for less fortunate infants, for whom birth is frequently the only contact with health care methods. Neonatal vaccination, therefore, has an effective process to improve vaccine coverage and convene protection before initial contact to vaccine-preventable viral and bacterial infections. Alternative, indirect strategies include vaccination of the pregnant mother and/or other family members so as to “cocoon” the neonate against exposure to pathogens, but these strategies have shortcomings.

The main reasons for neonatal deaths are congenital malformations, birth trauma, neonatal infections, and respiratory, metabolic and heart diseases. Although many of the neonatal problems are benign, self-limited and curable, some are lethal and a direct cause of infirmity and death. Experts who provide care for children must be alert of these problems, their natural history, their effect on children's health and their treatment. Birthmarks are common and often harmless, but parents need explanation and reassurance. Follow-up appointments are often necessary to safeguard the general security of the affected children. Birth trauma, such as intracranial hemorrhage or arm paralysis, may happen during delivery, and treatment at a specialized unit is usually essential. The prognosis of neonatal infections is generally poor, with high mortality unless treatment is started on time and effectively. Respiratory diseases arise primarily in low birth-weight newborns who may need mechanical ventilation. Metabolic and heart diseases are rare, but early recognition is essential to safeguard a high survival rate.

The human genome is often mentioned as a "blueprint" and comprises all of the material and directions required for describing a human being. Most genes contain the data needed to create a protein, or molecules that carry out all of a cell's important actions. Therefore, slight differences in genes cause slight changes in a protein. Although some human diseases are described by changes in a single gene or of a single chromosome, most are difficult and may involve numerous genes and protein trails. An innumerable of genes, as well as environmental influences, are believed to control the complex and integrated processes required for fetal growth. When one or more of these processes went awry, it can reflect in the birth of an infant with a genetic change. Scientific studies, frequently those that use other organisms as a model, will provide information about biological and controlling procedures involved in human development and will recognize dangerous ways in which genetic changes reflect in disease.

<p>Cord blood is contained in the umbilical cord and placenta of a newborn kid. Cord blood contains blood (hematopoietic) stem cells, which can create all the other cells found in blood, including cells of the immune system. Transplants of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from cord blood can be used to treat numerous different blood diseases, such as leukemia. Transplants of HSCs from cord blood seems to lead to fewer immune system mismatches when compared to HSCs from bone marrow donors. A limitation of cord blood is that it contains fewer HSCs than a bone marrow donation does; meaning adult patients regularly require two volumes of cord blood for treatments. Scholars are reviewing ways to expand the number of HSCs from cord blood in labs so that a single cord blood donation could supply sufficient cells for one or more HSC transplants. Some controversial studies propose that cord blood can help treat diseases other than blood diseases, but frequently these results cannot be repeated. Scholars are actively exploring if cord blood might be used to treat various other diseases.</p>