This is a study of diseases in humans and animals to know about how, when and why they occurred. Epidemiologist will determine what factors are associated with diseases and the factors to protect people and animals from diseases. They are also responsible to give reports to the health centers.
In this data is collected as per the disease occurring or spreading in many areas, which lead to control the flow of disease such as Swine Flu, Dengue etc. Also it is very important to manage and examine the rates of disease. Management is responsible to handle old records and new records to ensure that the report is perfectly suitable to find the cause of disease.
In this researcher are responsible to prepare a curable report on disease. As It is common that Researcher are the key persons to collect all the data regarding the disease and providing info to the labs. Research team will define key terms. Give important topics on health. Help in describing the public health.
Scientists think that people who are infected with the virus for example such as Ebola, Corona etc.. through the contact of infected animals. Which leads to death and this virus spread person to person very quick in large number. The virus spreads through direct contact (such as through broken skin or mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, or mouth) with: Blood or body fluids (urine, saliva, sweat, feces, vomit, breast milk, and semen) of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola virus disease (EVD). Objects (such as clothes, bedding, needles, and medical equipment) contaminated with body fluids from a person who is sick with or has died from EVD. Infected fruit bats or nonhuman primates (such as apes and monkeys).
Pandemic outbreak is a disease which spreads all over the world and killed large number of peoples. It’s a huge disease or virus spreads very quick. Below are the diseases that took place in the past: Asian Flu (1956-1958) Flu Pandemic (1918) Sixth Cholera Pandemic (1910-1911) Flu Pandemic (1889-1890) Third Cholera Pandemic (1852–1860) The Black Death (1346-1353) Plague of Justinian (541-542) Antonin Plague (165 AD)
Epidemic is a disease which includes yellow fever, bubonic plague, influenza, smallpox, chickenpox, typhus, and syndemic infection of hepatitis B and hepatitis D. These diseases spreads from person to person if anyone get contact with this and should take very safe precautions.
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by organisms — such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Many organisms live in and on our bodies. They're normally harmless or even helpful. But under certain conditions, some organisms may cause disease. Some infectious diseases can be passed from person to person. Other infectious diseases can spread from animals or insects to humans, but not from person to person.
A disease caused by consuming contaminated food or drink is known as “Foodborne Diseases”. These diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and parasites which are present in food that contaminates. However, symptoms may differ among the different types of foodborne diseases. Symptoms can sometimes be severe and some foodborne illnesses can even be life-threatening. Many different disease-causing germs can contaminate foods, so there are many different foodborne infections. Researchers have identified more than 250 foodborne diseases. Most of them are infections, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Harmful toxins and chemicals also can contaminate foods and cause foodborne illness.
The International Health Regulations are binding instrument of international law that aims to a assist countries to work together to save lives and livelihoods endangered by the international spread of diseases and other health risks and b avoid unnecessary interference with international trade and travel.
Travellers may get sudden and significant changes in altitude, humidity, microbes, and temperature, which can result in ill-health. International travel can pose various risks to health, depending on the characteristics of both the traveller and the travel. Serious health risks may arise in areas where accommodation is of poor quality, hygiene and sanitation are inadequate, medical services are not well developed and clean water is unavailable. Peoples who are planning to travel country to country should have forward planning for their health.
Most common tropical diseases are trypanosomiasis, chagas disease, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis. Tropical diseases are infectious diseases that either occur in tropical and subtropical regions (which is rare) or, more commonly, are more difficult to prevent or control. Bacteria and viruses are the main reason to cause tropical diseases and it is common in US. In addition, many diseases are spread by contaminated water and food sources, since clean water and sanitary conditions are often a luxury in developing countries. In the tropics, respiratory diseases (such as measles, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis) and sexually transmitted diseases are also of great importance.
Seasonal influenza is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses which spread in all parts of the world. Influenza, or flu, is a virus that attacks the respiratory system. The flu virus is highly contagious: When an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks, respiratory droplets are generated and transmitted into the air, and can then can be inhaled by anyone nearby. Additionally, a person who touches something with the virus on it and then touches his or her mouth, eyes or nose can become infected. Some of the diseases occurred from the following: Bird Flu Human Flu Swine Flu Horse Flu Dog Flu
A zoonotic disease is a disease spread between animals and people. Zoonotic diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. Some of these diseases are very common: The types of zoonosis include those caused by: Virus Bacteria Fungus Parasites Zoonoses can be transmitted in various ways: Through the air. By eating contaminated meat or produce. Through close contact with an infected animal. By touching an area or surface that an infected animal touched. Through insect bites like mosquitos or ticks.
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases Novel coronavirus is first occurred in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019. Till January 24, 2020, 830 cases had been spread in nine countries such as China, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Vietnam, Taiwan, Nepal, and the United States. Twenty-six fatalities occurred, mainly in patients who had serious underlying illness.
Zika virus is caused and transmitted by Mosquitoes, which bite during the day. Symptoms are generally mild and include fever, rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint pain, malaise or headache. Most people with Zika virus infection do not develop symptoms. Also very dangerous if not treated well. There is no treatment available for Zika virus infection or its associated diseases. Symptoms of Zika virus infection are usually mild. People with symptoms such as fever, rash, or arthralgia should get plenty of rest, drink fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, they should seek medical care and advice.
Ebola virus disease is formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, which is very dangerous virus and rare. Ebola Virus Disease is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus. Symptoms of EVD can be sudden and include: Fever Fatigue Muscle pain Headache Sore Throat This is followed by: Vomiting Diarrhoea Rash Symptoms of impaired kidney and liver function: In some cases, both internal and external bleeding (for example, oozing from the gums, or blood in the stools). Laboratory findings include low white blood cell and platelet counts and elevated liver enzymes.
Although swine flu not only affects humans, there was a global outbreak (pandemic) in 2009–2010, the first flu pandemic in more than 40 years. It was caused by a then-new flu virus known as H1N1, a type. A influenza virus that's a combination of swine, avian (bird), and human genes that mixed together in pigs and spread to humans. Symptoms H1N1 causes a respiratory illness and is very contagious. Symptoms of H1N1 are similar to those of the seasonal flu and may include: Fever Body Aches Loss of Appetite Coughing A Sore Throat Headaches Fatigue A Runny Nose Irritated Eyes Vomiting, Nausea, and Diarrhea
Measles is a highly contagious illness caused by a virus that replicates in the nose and throat of an infected child or adult. Then, when someone with measles coughs, sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air, where other people can inhale them. Symptoms: Fever, Rash Diseases or conditions caused: Encephalitis Type of infectious agent: Virus
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, or MERS‐CoV) that was first identified in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause diseases in humans, ranging from the common cold to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). A typical case of MERS includes fever, cough, and/or shortness of breath. Pneumonia is common, however some people infected with the MERS virus have been reported to be asymptomatic. Gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhoea, have also been reported.
Arbovirus is an informal name used to refer to any viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. The word arbovirus is an acronym (arthropod-borne virus).The word tibovirus (tick-borne virus) is sometimes used to more specifically describe viruses transmitted by ticks, a superorder within the arthropods. Arboviruses can affect both animals (including humans) and plants. In humans, symptoms of arbovirus infection generally occur 3–15 days after exposure to the virus and last three or four days. The most common clinical features of infection are fever, headache, and malaise, but encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever may also occur.